Summary of the steps involved in the dietetic process of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). FODMAP, fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols.
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells dynamics in gut physiology and disorders of gut-brain interactions. (A) Heterogenous distribution of EC cells. (B-D) Functional heterogeneity of EC cells. Small intestine EC cells are specialized for sensing nutrients and colonic EC cells for gut microbiota and its derived molecules. (E, F) Apical and basolateral interface of EC cells. EC cells coordinate bilateral communication through crosstalk between dietary, microbial, and inflammatory factors to which their apical surface is exposed and to enteric neurons with afferent endings close to their basolateral surface, coordinating gut-brain communication. GI, gastrointestinal; Tph1, tryptophan hydroxylase 1; Lgr5, leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5; 5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine; CCK, cholecystokinin; DGBI, disorders of gut-brian interaction; AHR, aryl hydrocarbon receptor; TRPA1, transient receptor potential ankyrin 1; TLR, toll-like receptor; OLF558, olfactory receptor 558; ST2, suppressing the tumorigenicity 2 receptor; TGR5, Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5; FFARs, free fatty acid receptor genes; SERT, serotonin reuptake transporter; 5-HTR, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor; IPAN, intrinsic primary afferent neuron; PDGFRα, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α; SMC, smooth muscle cell; ICC, interstitial cells of Cajal.
The test ending time. (A) Scatter diagrams of the test ending time. (B) Rate of participants who passed each time point in both groups. Open columns indicate the group of healthy participants. Closed columns indicate the group of patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). ***
Placement of functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) catheter across upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and real-time data output is shown. CSA, cross-sectional area.
Process for the conversion of functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) data to 3-dimensional panometry data. (A) Based on FLIP data obtained from each channel of the probe, the values of each channel are shown in a 2-dimensional plot. The x-axis shows the procedure time (second), and the y-axis shows the diameter (mm) of each channel. (B) The measured diameter data were used to convert FLIP data to 3-dimensional panometry data, and the diameter between each channel was interpolated by the spline method. The spline interpolation method performs interpolation by making interpolation functions of neighboring regions match not only the functional but also the differential value. The 3-dimensional contour plot was created using diameter values obtained through interpolation. (C) The 3-dimensional contour plot is colored according to the diameter. Depending on the diameter, the color changes from red to blue, and a few of the measured diameters less than 5 mm is set to black. (D) Creating 3-dimensional panometry data using the colored 3-dimensional contour plot from Figure 2A. (E) Dimension reduction of 3-dimensional panometry data into the 2-dimensional plot helps check the patient’s condition. (B to E) In each 3-dimensional plot, the x-axis represents the procedure time (second), the y-axis represents the probe channel, and the z-axis represents the diameter (mm) measured at the probe.
Natural history and pathological anatomy of the murine megacolon. Control and infected groups were evaluated in the acute phase (AP; 11 days) and chronic phases (CP; 3, 7, 12, and 15 months post-infection [m.p.i]) of