Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause. It is highly prevalent in the World population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogenous nature of its pathogenesis. Therefore, FD represents a heavy medical burden for healthcare systems. We constituted a guideline development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of functional dyspepsia. This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy,
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic and recurrent manifestation of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in the absence of an organic disease such as peptic ulcer, GI malignancy, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or pancreatitis. Symptoms of FD include epigastric pain, epigastric burning, postprandial fullness, and postprandial satiation. FD is considered a heterogenous condition. According to the Rome III criteria revised in 2006, FD was divided into 2 subtypes, namely, epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS),1 and these definition was also adopted by the Rome IV criteria.2 Two subtypes of FD were expected to have different pathophysiologies and drug responses. Since the revision of Rome III, many studies have been conducted on this basis, and more research on subtypes of FD has been conducted. The pathophysiology of FD is also heterogenous, and different underlying mechanisms contribute to diverse patterns of symptoms. Impaired gastric accommodation to a meal, delayed gastric emptying, and visceral hypersensitivity are involved in both EPS and PDS, and some patients have an overlap of both subtypes.2 Although the Kyoto consensus3 suggested
In 2005, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (KSNM) published evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of FD.6 In 2011, the guidelines were revised through a systematic review that focused on the treatment of FD and have been used in the clinical field.7 We introduced the new guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. This included a systematic review of the diagnosis and treatment and meta-analysis, which were performed with regard to FD treatment options such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs),
The steering committee of the KSNM in 2017 undertook the revision of the guidelines. The Working Group for Guidelines Development was formed from 2 of the 12 committees of the KSNM (ie, the FD Research Group and the Clinical Practice Guideline Group). The FD Research Group consisted of 1 institute board member (J.G.K.), 1 staff member (J.H.O.), and 6 general members (C.M.S., J.K.P., K.B.B., J.Y.L, K.J., and C.H.T.). The Clinical Practice Guideline Group consisted of 1 institute board member (H.K.J.), 1 staff member (K.H.S.), and 6 general members (J.E.S., J.S.K, S.J.K, M.K.B., H.C.I., and S.E.K.). The chairman of the Clinical Practice Guideline Group (H.K.J.) supervised and monitored the development process, while a methodologist expert in formulation of guidelines (E.S.S.) conducted the workshop on systematic review and meta-analysis.
The population, intervention, comparator, outcome, and healthcare setting principles were used as the basis of the statements. Current guidelines consist of 2 main topics: diagnosis and treatment of FD. These guidelines were developed by the de novo method that conducted systematic review and meta-analysis for acid suppressants (including PPIs and histamine receptor 2 antagonists [H2RA]),
Electronic databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed, were searched for relevant literature. Data extraction tables for the main topics (acid suppressants,
This revision defines 4 levels of evidence and evaluates the level of evidence for each statement based on the modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) (Table 1).10 Grading of recommendation also modified GRADE methodology as 5 levels including; strong for, weak for, weak against, strong against, and no recommendation (Table 2).10 We considered evidence level, clinical applicability, benefit and harm as recommendation factors. The Committee reviewed the draft of the working group then discussed for consensus.
To adopt the core recommendations of the guidelines, the Delphi technique, which is a panel of experts on FD, was used. The panel was selected by former or current members of the KSNM Steering Committee and the faculty of gastroenterology departments of university hospitals. The first Delphi round was conducted on the 9 newly updated recommendations, including 2 diagnostic methods (endoscopy and
Guideline development committee members conducted internal reviews through online and offline meetings. KSNM executives completed internal review by creating additional amendments. The Korean Society of Internal Medicine recommended members who acted as external judges (S.C.C. and M.I.P). According to the external review, the definition of FD and the change in terminology were pointed out and modified. In addition, an explanation on the difference between the international trend including the Kyoto consensus and Korean guidelines was added.
The developed guidelines will be listed in the “Clinical practice guidelines” on the official website of the Korean Society of Gastroenterology. In addition, these latest guidelines will be presented at medical symposia, conferences, and hospitals. Amendment to these new guidelines is scheduled to be made in about 5 years if the data are accumulated. The relevant committee of KSNM will be responsible for the revision.
These guidelines were developed independently by KSNM without external funding, and KSNM did not have any specific impact on the development process of working teams. No other organization or individual influenced the content of the guidelines. No member of the working team has a conflict of interest, which has been documented.
Dyspepsia is defined as any symptom that refers to the upper GI tract, and it is one of the most common GI symptom. FD is defined by the Rome IV criteria as a syndrome with one or more of the following symptoms present over the past 3 months, with at least 6 months of onset: bothersome postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain, and epigastric burning, with no evidence of structural disease, as seen in upper endoscopy that is likely to explain the symptoms.2 The Rome criteria have the advantage of selecting the more homogenous subset from various dyspeptic patients in actual clinical practice. In the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines and American College of Gastroenterologists & Canadian Association of Gastroenterologists clinical guidelines on dyspepsia management, dyspepsia is defined as predominant epigastric pain lasting at least 1 month and associated with any other upper GI symptom such as epigastric fullness, nausea, vomiting, or heartburn.12,13 These guidelines are intended to be used in clinical practice and are intended to target a wide range of dyspeptic patients beyond those that meet the definition of FD by Rome criteria. Thus, in the presently proposed guideline, dyspepsia is defined as pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen, postprandial fullness, early satiation, bloating, nausea, or vomiting that has lasted more than 1 month.
Refractory FD refers to FD that has continuous symptoms for at least 8 weeks and has been unresponsive to at least 2 medical treatments.14 The guidelines for FD in the Asia-Pacific region and the United States of America (USA) recommend changing to a different drug if adequate therapeutic efficacy has not been achieved after 4 weeks of treatment.15,16 Recent Japanese guideline for dyspepsia suggested that refractory FD is one that did not respond to initial treatment with acid suppressants and prokinetics, and second step of treatment with traditional medicine, anxiolytics or antidepressants, and
Several studies have shown no significant differences in controlling dyspeptic symptoms between “
The incidence of gastric cancer in Korea is the highest in the world. In the 2008 Korea Central Cancer Registry, the age-specific gastric cancer incidence per 100 000 persons were 16.7 males and 16.4 females within the ages of 34–39 years, and 36.3 males and 28.8 females within the ages of 40–44 years.24 The age-adjusted incidence rates per 100 000 person-year from 1999 to 2010 were 7.40 males and 8.33 females within the ages of 20–39 years, and these increased up to 73.11 males and 35.13 females within the ages of 40–54 years.25 Data from GLOBOCAN 2012, produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), showed that the age-standardized incidence rates per 100 000 for gastric cancer in Korea were 5.7 within the ages of 15–39 years, and it increased to 30 within the ages of 40–44 years. There is no study to evaluate the incidence of gastric cancer by age in patients with dyspepsia in Korea. There was no gastric cancer among the 308 patients under 40 years old in a study done to determine the usefulness of
A systematic review with meta-analysis was recently done to evaluate the appropriateness of prompt endoscopy as an initial strategy for uninvestigated dyspepsia in Asia, giving the high prevalence of
Multiple factors may be associated with the pathophysiology of FD. These factors can include impaired gastric accommodation, delayed gastric emptying, hypersensitivity, social factors,
The prevalence in Western countries is around 20.0% and 40.0% among young adults and at older ages, respectively.32 The prevalence of gastric cancer is high in Asian countries, including Korea, particularly among young people. Long-term empirical drug treatment as the initial approach to dyspepsia is not advisable because of delay in the diagnosis of organic disease, especially in patients with dyspepsia over 40 years of age, in whom there is high probability of gastric cancer. Therefore, we suggest that “test and treat approach” for
Urea breath tests and stool antigen tests are the most widely used noninvasive tests for
FD is diagnosed by both the presence of typical symptoms and the exclusion of organic diseases such as gastric cancer. Several guidelines have recommended evaluation of organic causes when alarm features (eg, weight loss, bleeding signs, progressive dysphagia, persistent vomiting, and recent NSAID/anticoagulant/ antiplatelet use) are present.14,16,33,34 However, a recent systematic review found that alarm symptoms were of limited value in detecting organic pathology.35 This has led to a revised guideline, which recommends further evaluation in patients with alarm symptoms and over the age of 60 years or those with symptoms that suggest a pancreatic or biliary source.36
However, this fails to take into account the epidemiologic differences in organic disease between the East and West. Gastric cancer is highly prevalent in Korea and is projected to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men between 35 years and 50 years of age and the third most diagnosed cancer in women of the same age range.37 Furthermore, a recent systematic review found that alarm symptoms in young Asians were of significant diagnostic value.38 Therefore, we suggest that dyspeptic patients with alarm symptoms undergo further evaluation such as upper GI endoscopy, regardless of age. However, we agree with previous guidelines that suggest no further evaluation for patients with intractable dyspepsia without alarm signs as such evaluation may be of limited clinical benefit.36
Patients with continued symptoms of dyspepsia should be carefully reassessed, paying specific attention to the type of ongoing symptoms, and the degree to which symptoms have improved or worsened. If clinically indicated, complete blood count (CBC) and blood chemistry should be performed in dyspeptic patients to identify organic diseases that can cause dyspepsia.14,39 The development of iron deficiency anemia has been found to be a predisposing factor for the diagnosis of pathologic GI diseases. Pathologic GI diseases was diagnosed in 23.0% of Korean adult population who presented with iron deficiency, and GI malignancy was diagnosed in 1.0% of that population, mainly in elderly patients.40 In that study, it was suggested that patients with iron deficiency should undergo endoscopic evaluation of the GI tract, irrespective of whether or not they have anemia.39 Anemia is also associated with
Patients with unresponsive to empirical medical therapy should undergo blood tests, such as CBC and blood chemistry, if not conducted at the time of initial diagnosis. Upper abdominal ultra-sonography or abdominal CT scan may be employed, especially in areas with high prevalence of liver44 or pancreatic cancers that present with dyspeptic symptoms.14,36,39,44
Hypersensitivity to acid, reduced duodenal acid clearance, and altered gastric motility induced by duodenal acid have been suggested as putative roles of acid in FD and justification for the use of acid suppressive therapy.45–47 PPIs have been the mainstay treatment for FD, but the reported efficacy is marginal and controversy exists.48 We performed a new meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of PPI therapy (Supplementary Fig. 1–3). We identified 8 RCTs involving 2216 FD patients to compare the global symptom improvement between PPI and placebo.49–56 The treatment period was 2–8 weeks. PPI was more effective than placebo for overall global symptom improvement, with symptom improvement seen in 36.0% of the PPI group and 30.0% of the placebo group (RR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.87). However, there was heterogeneity between studies (χ2 = 17.76;
PPIs are believed to be effective for FD patients with ulcer or reflux-like symptoms,57 and several guidelines suggest tailored PPIs treatment according to FD subtype.58–60 However, this is controversial.61–63 Although the Rome III criteria subdivided FD into EPS and PDS, dyspepsia forms a symptom complex with overlap between EPS and PDS.27,64 We identified 4 RCTs that evaluated the efficacy of PPI in FD patients with epigastric pain or burning as the predominant symptom, including 2 involving the EPS subtype based on the Rome III criteria.51,52,54,55 PPI was more effective than placebo for the treatment of predominant epigastric pain or burning (RR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.04–1.44) with no observed heterogeneity (χ2 = 0.02,
H2RAs, as acid suppressants, are another option for the treatment of FD. A Cochrane meta-analysis of 12 RCTs involving 2456 non-ulcer dyspeptic patients reported an RR of persistent symptoms of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.65–0.92) and an NNT of 7. However, the evidence justifying the use of H2RAs is limited. The overall quality of the trials was low, and they were conducted before the introduction of the Rome III criteria.65 Regarding the efficacy of H2RAs compared with PPI, there was no statistical difference in terms of symptom relief in a recent meta-analysis of 7 RCTs evaluating 2456 dyspeptic patients (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.76–1.16). However, there was a trend toward greater symptom relief with a PPI among the included studies.36 Moreover, repeat dosing of H2RAs led to the development of tachyphylaxis or tolerance,66 thus attenuating their efficacy but without further reduction in efficacy once tachyphylaxis had been developed.67 Tachyphylaxis possibly limits the use of H2RAs as maintenance therapy for FD due to attenuated efficacy.68 Although H2RAs are considered safe, they can cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including anaphylaxis. In a study evaluating 584 patients (694 cases) with ADRs caused by ranitidine, anaphylaxis was occasionally observed.69 Besides, ranitidine metabolite from several manufacturers has been reported to have a carcinogenic property in September 2019, then, many drugs including ranitidine have been withdrawn from the market. Thus, while short-term use of H2RAs may be indicated in the management of FD, caution may need to be taken.
Prokinetic drugs are classified as dopamine D2 receptor antagonists (D2 antagonists), 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (HT4) receptor agonists, or motilin agonists, based on their mechanism of action. Domperidone, a D2 antagonist, was found in a meta-analysis to be effective for the treatment of bloating and early satiation symptoms as compared to placebo when used for 2–4 weeks.70 Metoclopramide and levosulpiride have also been shown to improve dyspeptic symptoms.71 However, metoclopramide, levosulpiride, and domperidone, which are effective D2 antagonists, may cause extrapyramidal symptoms, and this limits their dosing duration in Korea.
Itopride is a D2 antagonist that works peripherally, avoiding the central receptor-related extrapyramidal side effects and resulting in a minimal elevation of prolactin hormone levels. It was found to be effective for global symptom improvement, postprandial fullness, and early satiation when compared to placebo in a meta-analysis comprising 9 studies that included a total of 2620 patients.72 Although this drug is not available in the USA or UK owing to negative phase III study results,73 it can be used in Korea.
Representative 5-HT4 receptor agonists, cisapride and tegaserod, have been reported to induce arrhythmias and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, these drugs have been excluded from the current market. Mosapride, another 5-HT4 receptor agonist, does not induce arrhythmia, and promotes GI motility and gastric emptying.74 Similar to itopride, mosapride did not show superior results compared with placebo in a RCT of FD, but in one study it was found to improve overall quality of life.75,76 Furthermore, in a recent meta-analysis with 13 RCTs, mosapride did not show a consistent benefit, although the diagnostic criteria were different for each study.77 Conversely, in a sensitivity meta-analysis of 4 high-quality RCTs, mosapride was found to be an effective drug for FD (RR, 1.114; 95% CI, 1.011–1.227;
Recently, a sustained-release, once-daily mosapride formulation was developed (a reduction from the conventional thrice-daily dosing regimen). According to a recent report, 138 patients were enrolled and divided into 2 groups (a study group and a conventional control group). When the improvement of GI symptoms and side effects were compared, the once-daily sustained-release group was not inferior to the conventional mosapride dosing group. Considering the ease of compliance, the once-dosing medication regimen will be a good choice in the future.81
A meta-analysis in 2007, which tested various prokinetics, showed a 30% higher probability of obtaining a treatment effect with prokinetics as compared with placebo (95% CI, 0.208–0.382;
In addition, DA-9701 (motilitone) is a newly developed prokinetic product that is formulated from the plant extracted of Pharbitidis semen and Corydalis tuber. In a study in which 389 patients were divided into 3 groups (motilitone-treated, PPI-treated, and PPI with motilitone-treated), all 3 groups showed significant improvement in dyspeptic symptoms and in quality of life measurements.85 However, there was no difference among the groups except for the status of
According to the recent Rome IV classification, a large number of FD patients have PDS, which causes discomfort after meals or a feeling of early satiation.88 In a large-scale study of mosapride in Japan,78 patients with FD were divided into a gastric stasis symptom group and an EPS group. Administration of mosapride led to a significant improvement in the gastric stasis symptom group. However, the control group, which was treated with teprenone, also showed symptomatic improvement, and this is a limitation of the study. In addition, a recent study that used sustained-release mosapride81 showed no significant difference in GI symptom score improvement in PDS when patients were sub-grouped by EPS and PDS. A meta-analysis of the previously mentioned itopride showed a significant effect on postprandial fullness and early satiation when compared to domperidone. However, no statistical difference was noted when compared to placebo.72
Acotiamide is a newly developed drug that exerts its gastroprokinetic activity by increasing acetylcholine release through antagonism of the M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors in the enteric nervous system and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity.89 In one RCT, 4 weeks of acotiamide treatment was more effective compared to placebo for the relief of symptom severity and diet-related symptoms.90 In another study using acotiamide, a significant effect on gastric accommodation and gastric emptying was noted in 34.8% of patients.91 Additionally, in a meta-analysis of 7 RCT studies, acotiamide was shown to be more effective against PDS-related symptoms compared to placebo.92 Acotiamide was also reported to have a significant clinical effect on the quality of life and postprandial symptoms in an open, 3-phase study for long-term outcome and safety.93 Recently, a study comparing PDS- and EPS-type patients with FD showed that acotiamide significantly improved symptoms in both groups, but in a subgroup analysis, it was found to be more effective against the PDS type.94 Based on these results, acotiamide would be a good therapeutic agent for patients who primarily have PDS symptoms. However, acotiamide is not available in Korea, and studies using other prokinetics have been lacking. In the future, randomized or large-scale studies are needed to determine the effects of other prokinetic agents on PDS subtypes.
Erythromycin, a motilin receptor agonist, was shown to be effective in facilitating gastric emptying, and one study showed that it caused improvements in bloating-related symptoms.95 However, a randomized study96 did not show any statistical difference compared to placebo, and erythromycin is not currently being used in Korea for this indication. Although well-planned RCT studies are lacking, prokinetics are considered important for symptomatic improvement in patients with PDS symptoms in Korea.
Prokinetics that have proven effective over placebo are mostly D2 antagonists. They act on the excitatory motor neurons in the digestive tract. There are issues of clinical safety for these D2 antagonists, and these require the attention of prescribing physicians. Metoclopramide is the most well-known neuroleptic D2 antagonist. It can cause extrapyramidal symptoms and is characterized by an acute dystonic reaction within the first 24 hours to 48 hours with a typical adult dose. The risk of extrapyramidal adverse effects increases with duration of treatment and total cumulative dose. These effects are generally irreversible and more prevalent in adolescent patients.97
Domperidone may cause QT prolongation and thus cardiac arrhythmias may occur consequently. In 2 case-control studies in 2010, domperidone exposures were significantly higher in patients with sudden death or severe ventricular arrhythmias than in controls.98,99 Based on this, the European Medicines Agency recommended limited use of domperidone. In 2014, the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety also sent a letter of safety regarding the use of the drug: the ministry recommended limited use for alleviating nausea or vomiting, emphasizing not to use beyond a dose of 10 mg 3 times a day, for at most 1 week. Concomitant administration of cardiac medications, quinolones, clarithromycin, isoniazid, anti-fungal agents, and fluoxetine, which may cause QT prolongation, was prohibited.
Data on 132 drug-related movement disorders in one institution showed that the majority (68.9%) were related to levosulpiride. Most of the patients were relatively elderly patients, aged 60 years or older, and they had Parkinsonism, face dyskinesia, and isolated tremor after 5–10 months of medication. Symptoms continued in about half of the patients even after discontinuation of the drug.100
In 2 meta-analyses of the RCTs, a small but statistically significant improvement in the long-term (6 months to 12 months) was observed in the
We performed meta-analysis of 18 RCTs from January 1997 to December 2017, evaluating the long-term (more than 6 months) effect of
Among dyspeptic patients, factors that predict good response to
Impaired relaxation of the proximal part of the stomach to accommodate a meal is present in 40.0% of patients with FD and is a pathophysiological mechanism that is associated with symptoms such as early satiation and weight loss.120 Buspirone and tandospirone are 5-HT1 receptor agonists and have fundic relaxation effects.121 In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, buspirone significantly increased gastric accommodation after 4 weeks of treatment. It significantly reduced the overall severity of dyspeptic symptoms and individual symptoms of postprandial fullness, early satiation, and abdominal bloating.122 In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, tandospirone significantly improved total abdominal symptom scores and upper abdominal pain in patients with FD.123 5-HT4 receptor agonists such as cisapride, tegaserod, and mosapride citrate can enhance meal-induced gastric accommodation and improve the symptoms of some patients with FD.74,124–126 Acotiamide acts as a muscarinic receptor antagonist and cholinesterase antagonist, improves gastric emptying, and enhances fundic relaxation. In an RCT that used real-time ultrasonography, acotiamide significantly enhanced postprandial gastric accommodation reflex in patients with FD.127 A placebo-controlled study that used gastric scintigraphy demonstrated that acotiamide significantly increased gastric accommodation and improved overall GI symptoms and anxiety scores.91 Some antidepressants also have fundic relaxant activity and improve gastric accommodation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, amitriptyline and escitalopram were administered for 12 weeks, and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging was used to measure the gastric accommodation. These drugs significantly improved gastric accommodation; however, further studies of the precise mechanism of action are needed.128
TCAs are used clinically to improve symptoms in patients with functional GI disorders. A recent guideline from Korea recommended that TCAs can be considered for symptom improvement in IBS patients.11 Recently, 2 systematic reviews compared TCAs with placebo in patients with FD.129,130 The first review included 4 RCTs and found that administration of TCAs was associated with reduced number of patients showing no improvement in symptoms compared with placebo (RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62–0.94) with an NNT of 7 (95% CI, 4–26).129 The second review included 3 RCTs and found TCAs to be effective in reducing dyspeptic symptoms (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61–0.91) with an NNT of 6 (95% CI, 6–18).130 Our systematic review identified one RCT131 that was not included in the previous review. Meta-analysis including this study found TCAs to be effective in symptom improvement compared to placebo (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64–0.93;
Two RCTs from Asia compared TCAs with placebo for patients with refractory FD.131,132 The first study found imipramine to be effective in relief of dyspeptic symptoms after 12 weeks of administration, compared with placebo.131 However, the other study reported that nortriptyline failed to achieve reduction in dyspeptic symptoms after 8 weeks of treatment.132 There was a research showing that TCAs were more effective in treating ulcer-like FD, corresponding to the EPS type, than in dysmotility-like FD.133 In summary, TCAs may be effective in treatment of refractory FD, especially for patients with the EPS type. Although there was no statistically significant difference in adverse events between TCAs and placebo in our study, patients should be cautioned about the adverse event profiles. In addition, further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of TCAs in Asian patients with FD.
In a recent meta-analysis of 17 RCTs, rebamipide, which is a quinolone derivative, improved dyspeptic symptoms by 23.0% compared to placebo or the control group when the symptomatic improvement was expressed as dichotomous outcomes. Especially in patients with organic dyspepsia, symptoms decreased by 28.0%, which was statistically significant, but there was no significant improvement in FD.134 The mechanism by which rebamipide decreases dyspeptic symptoms seems to be that it improves chronic gastritis. When symptom score was used as the outcome variable, symptoms were improved in FD as well as in organic dyspepsia.
Sucralfate is an antacid, and 2 placebo-controlled studies have been reported for the management of non-ulcer dyspepsia with sucralfate. Sucralfate administration for 3 weeks was not effective in improving symptoms when compared to placebo in one study.135 In contrast, sucralfate administration for 4 weeks showed significant symptom improvement compared to placebo in another study.136 In an analysis of 2 studies, sucralfate improved symptoms but the improvement was not statistically significant.137
There were 2 studies on simethicone, an anti-flatulence agent. In a 4-week randomized comparison of simethicone (80 mg 3 times a day) and cisapride (10 mg 3 times a day), simethicone was more effective than cisapride for relieving bloating at 2 and 4 weeks and for relieving reflux only at 2 weeks.138 Based on this study, a placebo-controlled study was conducted, which was an 8-week clinical trial with a slight increase in simethicone dose (105 mg 3 times daily).139 Simethicone and cisapride improved symptoms when compared with placebo in FD patients, and simethicone showed better symptom improvement in the first 2 weeks as compared with cisapride. Simethicone has been known as a drug that reduces GI gas. Although its mechanism of action on FD is not known precisely, simethicone seems to decrease the surface tension of air bubbles that are not absorbed in the intestine.
Patients of FD had higher psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, and psychological distress than those with no FD as found in a study.140 Psychological therapies for patients with FD have included dynamic psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, behavioral treatments, and cognitive-behavioral therapy.141–143 A systematic review showed insufficient evidence on the efficacy of psychotherapies in nonulcer dyspepsia although in one trial, hypnotherapy was significantly superior to the control.141,144
A prospective RCT showed that 4 month-intensified medical management (medical therapy with testing-for and targeting-of abnormalities of motor and sensory function) with psychological intervention was significantly beneficial in reducing dyspepsia symptoms that did not respond to conventional therapy. Additional cognitive behavioral therapy may be especially effective for control of concomitant anxiety and depression.145 Another RCT of a 10-week group psychotherapy in combination with standard medical treatment showed significantly improved dyspeptic symptoms and dyspepsia-related quality of life, compared with medical therapy alone.146
A recent systematic review showed a significant benefit of psychological therapies in reducing dyspepsia symptoms (RR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.44–0.65) with an NNT of 3. The review included studies that described the outcome in terms of a dichotomous improvement in dyspepsia symptoms in 789 FD patients.36 The outcomes of psychological intervention had negative association with poor sleep quality (OR, 7.68; 95% CI, 1.83–32.25) and bad marriage status (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10–1.36), but positive association with extroversion in personality traits (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76–0.96).147 Considering all these, psychological therapies can be considered in severely affected FD patients that are not responding to drug therapies, especially if the symptoms may be related to psychological factors.
Although dietary factor is considered to have an important role in patients with FD, studies on the causal relationship of specific foods with FD are still lacking and inconsistent. Generally, it is desirable to avoid foods that induce dyspeptic symptoms. Fatty foods particularly exacerbate or induce dyspeptic symptoms. Intraduodenal lipid increases sensitivity to gastric distension and induces abdominal fullness and discomfort in patients with FD.148 There was a trend for a reduction in fat intake in FD patients, and post-prandial fullness and bloating were related directly to high fat intake.149 High fat intake was also found to induce nausea and abdominal pain in FD patients more than in healthy controls.150 Milk and dairy food, wheat-containing food and spicy food may also provoke dyspeptic symptoms.151,152 Carbonated drinks and coffee are associated with dyspeptic symptoms.152,153 However, there are no clear evidences of a role for dietary intervention with respect to these specific foods for the purpose of dyspeptic symptom relief, and well-designed studies are needed.
Dyspepsia is a common clinical problem. GI endoscopy should be performed in patients older than 40 years to rule out organic cause, especially gastric cancer. If the symptoms become chronic or repeat after the elimination of the underlying disease, patients with FD should be treated with PPIs, especially in EPS subtypes. Although H2RAs were shown to be as effective, their effectiveness is unknown for long-term use. Prokinetics such as dopamine D2 antagonists and 5-HT4 receptor agonists could be used for patients with FD, especially in PDS subtypes. Some D2 antagonists need to be used carefully as they can cause adverse reactions during long-term use. Meta-analysis shows significant but modest efficacy of
We are grateful to all who participated in this study. We thank Prof. Moo In Park and Prof. Suck Chei Choi for working as external judges. In addition, we also thank Prof. Ein-Soon Shin for helping us develop the guidelines.