Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility : eISSN 2093-0887 / pISSN 2093-0879

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Fig. 2. Schematic representation of the 2 most important opsin families. Upon blue illumination, Channelrhodopsins (derived from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) will conduct cations, which in neurons, will result in Na+ influx and a depolarization of the cell. A single action potential or more sustained depolarization can be elicited using either brief or longer light pulses. Halorhodopsins (Natromonas pharaonii) cause the opposite effect, in that upon illumination with yellow/orange light a Cl? pump is switched on, leading to hyperpolarization of the cell. In order to know where the transgene is expressed, the opsins are generally fused to a fluorescent reporter protein (XFP), which should be carefully selected, as the wavelength to activate the opsins should not interfere with the wavelength used for visualization of the cell.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2015;21:337~351
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