Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility : eISSN 2093-0887 / pISSN 2093-0879

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Fig. 1. Histopathology of peroral endoscopic myotomy biopsies of esophageal circular smooth muscle (CSM) showing diminished innervation in achalasia. (A) Representative images of CSM from the lower esophageal sphincter stained with H&E from control tissue and achalasia. Scale bar, 20 µm. (B, C) Detection of innervation of CSM cells by immunocytochemistry, with representative images of staining with the pan-axonal marker protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 (B; red staining) in control and achalasia tissue. (C) Images showing the subset of nitrergic axons in the CSM by staining with antibodies to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, green). Scale bar, 20 µm. Arrows and arrowheads indicate positive staining. Nuclei are stained with Hoechst (blue). (D) Image analysis showing decreased percent total area of positive staining per image for PGP or nNOS in achalasia (Ach) vs control (Con). *P < 0.0001 vs control. (E) Graph depicting the percent area of positive staining for PGP in each subtype of achalasia.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2024;30:166~176
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