Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility : eISSN 2093-0887 / pISSN 2093-0879

Table. 1.

Demographic Data of the Study Population

Demography and clinical characteristics Patients (n = 90) Healthy control (n = 28) P-value
Demography
Age (yr) 55.3 ± 10.2 43.3 ± 13.3 < 0.001
Male gender 70/90 (77.7) 11/28 (39.2) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.7 ± 3.3 22.7 ± 3.1 0.152
ENT first visit 73/90 (81.1) - -
Clinical presentations
Major laryngeal symptom
Globus sensation 22/90 (24.4) - -
Throat pain 19/90 (21.1) - -
Hoarseness 31/90 (34.4) - -
Cough 15/90 (16.6) - -
Throat clearing 3/90 (3.3) - -
Typical GERD symptoms 34/90 (37.7) - -
Symptom duration, months 12 (7, 36) - -
Previous acid suppressive therapy use 61/90 (67.7) - -
Diabetes mellitus 5/90 (5.6) 0/28 (0.0) 0.337
Hypertension 17/90 (18.8) 1/28 (3.6) 0.069
Post nasal drip 37/90 (41.1) 0/28 (0.0) < 0.001
Endoscopic findings
Reflux esophagitis 10/90 (11.1) 0/28 (0.0) 0.115
Hiatus hernia 4/90 (4.4) 0/28 (0.0) 0.571
Peptic ulcer 7/90 (7.8) 5/28 (17.8) 0.237
Helicobacter pylori 21/90 (23.3) 9/27 (33.3) 0.698
24-hour pH test finding
Distal esophageal pH time (%)
Total 0.8 (0.2-2.1, 7.8) 0.3 (0.1-1.2, 2.9) 0.094
Upright 1.2 (0.3-3.1, 10.5) 0.5 (0.2-1.8, 3.2) 0.073
Supine 0.0 (0.0-0.1, 3.9) 0.0 (0.0-0.0, 3.5) 0.366
Pathological acid exposure time in the distal esophagusa 17/90 (18.8) 3/28 (10.7) 0.398

aPathological acid exposure time in the distal esophagus was defined as ≥ 4.2% of 24-hour, or ≥ 6.3% of upright position, or ≥ 1.2% of supine position, with pH < 4 at 5-cm above the upper margin of the lower esophageal sphincter.

BMI, body mass index; ENT, Ear-Nose-Throat specialists; GERD, gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Pearson chi-square tests were used for dichotomous variables, whereas Mann-Whitney U tests were used for continuous variables, t tests were used when age and BMI were expressed as continuous variables (normal distribution).

Data are presented as mean ± SD, n/n (%), or median (interquartile range).

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2023;29:49~57
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