Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility : eISSN 2093-0887 / pISSN 2093-0879

Table. 2.

Basic Clinical Caracteristics of the Participantsa

Clinical characteristics Observed data (n = 368 556) Weighted data (n = 723 370)b
n (%)c Standardized difference (%)f n (%)c Standardized difference (%)f
Control groupd
(n = 359 769)
Infantile colic groupe
(n =8787)
Control groupd
(n = 363 528)
Infantile colic groupe
(n = 359 842)
Hospital utilization within 6 months of age
Number of visits to pediatricians 341 551 (94.9) 8688 (98.9) 22.5 345 435 (95.0) 342 290 (95.1) 2.2
Number of visiting ER 15 903 (4.4) 1174 (13.4) 32.3 16 843 (4.6) 18 281 (5.1) 1.2
Certain conditions (ICD-10 codes) originating in the perinatal period
Respiratory and cardiovascular disorders specific to the perinatal period 14 605 (4.1) 427 (4.9) 4.0 14 845 (4.1) 14 480 (4.0) 0.1
Infections specific to the perinatal period 49 707 (13.8) 1373 (15.6) 5.3 50 342 (13.8) 51 833 (14.4) 0.2
Hemorrhagic and hematological disorders of fetus and newborn 112 149 (31.2) 2755 (31.4) 0.2 113 338 (31.2) 112 868 (31.4) 0.1
Digestive system disorders of fetus and newborn 10 079 (2.8) 331 (3.8) 5.4 10 283 (2.8) 10 410 (2.9) 0.0
Prevalent diseases (ICD-10 codes) diagnosed within 6 months of age
Otitis media, unspecified 7989 (2.2) 204 (2.3) 0.4 8058 (2.2) 7869 (2.2) 0.2
Acute nasopharyngitis 104 381 (29.0) 3056 (34.8) 12.5 105 974 (29.2) 107 273 (29.8) 0.1
Acute pharyngitis 37 920 (10.5) 1103 (12.6) 6.4 38 483 (10.6) 39 901 (11.1) 0.6
Acute upper respiratory infection, unspecified 81 665 (22.7) 2198 (25.0) 5.1 82 711 (22.8) 84 377 (23.4) 0.5
Pneumonia, unspecified 9496 (2.6) 225 (2.6) 0.1 9569 (2.6) 10 044 (2.8) 0.6
Acute bronchitis 66 304 (18.4) 1634 (18.6) 0.6 66 995 (18.4) 66 559 (18.5) 0.7
Acute bronchiolitis 48 798 (13.6) 1129 (12.8) 2.2 49 176 (13.5) 50 601 (14.1) 0.7
Viral intestinal infection, unspecified 9741 (2.7) 459 (5.2) 12.5 10 064 (2.8) 11 772 (3.3) 0.6
Infectious gastroenteritis and colitis of infectious origin 5416 (1.5) 192 (2.2) 5.2 5524 (1.5) 5995 (1.7) 0.6
Gastroesophageal reflux disease without esophagitis 8416 (2.3) 333 (3.8) 8.6 8617 (2.4) 8590 (2.4) 0.4
Functional dyspepsia 7635 (2.1) 315 (3.6) 8.7 7834 (2.2) 8289 (2.3) 0.2
Noninfective gastroenteritis and colitis, unspecified 16 372 (4.6) 561 (6.4) 8.2 16 709 (4.6) 18 306 (5.1) 0.8
Constipation 15 365 (4.3) 574 (6.5) 9.9 15 699 (4.3) 16 272 (4.5) 0.7
Functional diarrhea 5223 (1.5) 205 (2.3) 6.1 5360 (1.5) 5375 (1.5) 0.0
Functional intestinal disorder, unspecified 10 060 (2.8) 357 (4.1) 7.3 10 248 (2.8) 10 274 (2.9) 0.1
Dermatitis 15 342 (4.3) 480 (5.5) 5.6 15 630 (4.3) 15 785 (4.4) 0.1
Pyogenic granuloma 4750 (1.3) 131 (1.5) 1.1 4820 (1.3) 4498 (1.3) 0.0
Urinary tract infection, site not specified 7731 (2.1) 231 (2.6) 3.1 7861 (2.2) 8302 (2.3) 0.1
Nausea and vomiting 10 334 (2.9) 495 (5.6) 13.6 10 699 (2.9) 11 869 (3.3) 0.5
Fever, unspecified 18 237 (5.1) 524 (6.0) 4.1 18 507 (5.1) 21 194 (5.9) 0.1
Drug (drug classification code) used within 6 months of age
Sedative-hypnotics 10 825 (3.0) 524 (6.0) 14.3 11 172 (3.1) 11 444 (3.2) 0.5
Antipyretics 126 399 (35.1) 3410 (38.8) 7.5 127 985 (35.2) 134 985 (37.5) 4.4
Antispasmodics 8222 (2.3) 638 (7.3) 23.1 8741 (2.4) 9205 (2.6) 0.5
Antihistamines 168 646 (46.9) 4231 (48.2) 2.4 179 449 (49.4) 168 537 (46.8) 0.7
Respiratory system drugs 195 021 (54.2) 4905 (55.8) 3.3 197 134 (54.2) 198 425 (55.1) 2.8
Digestive system drugs 188 764 (52.5) 5899 (67.1) 30.3 191 926 (52.8) 191 892 (53.3) 0.8
Hormone drugs 17 352 (4.8) 432 (4.9) 0.5 17 530 (4.8) 16 764 (4.7) 0.6

aUnless otherwise specified, all baseline characteristics were assessed in the first 6 months of age of the participants.

bWeighted using inverse probability of exposure weighting based on the propensity score. The propensity score was estimated using multivariable logistic regression with 97 previously covariates, as defined in Supplementary Table 2 Participants in the reference group were weighted as (propensity score/[1-propensity score]). This method produces a weighted pseudo sample of participants in the reference group with the same distribution of measured covariates as the exposure group.

cResults are reported as n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

dAs the reference group, the control group consisted of children who had not been diagnosed with infantile colic at 5 weeks to 4 months of age.

eThe infantile colic group consists of children who have been diagnosed with infantile colic at least once between 5 weeks and 4 months of age.

fDifferences greater than 10% were interpreted as meaningful differences. All standardized differences in the cohort values were < 0.05.

ICD, International Classification of Diseases; ER, emergency room.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2022;28:618~629 https://doi.org/10.5056/jnm21181
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