Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility : eISSN 2093-0887 / pISSN 2093-0879

Table. 1.

Characteristics of the Study Subjects According to the Presence or Absence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Characteristics GERD
(n = 15)
Non-GERD
(n = 83)
P-value
Male 9 (60.0) 47 (56.6) 0.808
Age (yr) 53.1 ± 11.7 55.5 ± 12.9 0.513
BMI (kg/m2) 24.7 ± 2.9 22.6 ± 3.1 0.011
Main complaints
Globus 10 (66.7) 63 (75.9) 0.072
Hoarseness 3 (20.0) 15 (18.1)
Throat pain 0 (0.0) 4 (4.8)
Cough 2 (13.3) 1 (1.2)
Endoscopic findingsa
No RE 10 (66.7) 83 (100) NA
LA-A 4 (23.5) 0
LA-B 1 (11.8) 0
Laryngopharyngeal refluxb 15 (100.0) 78 (94.0) 0.428
GerdQ score 8.1 ± 3.0 7.6 ± 2.2 0.533
RSI score 19.4 ± 10.0 18.1 ± 8.7 0.600
Impedance-pH monitoring parameters
DeMeester score 13.9 ± 14.3 2.9 ± 2.5 0.010
DeMeester score > 14.72 5 (33.3) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
Acid exposure time (%) 4.3 ± 4.3 0.7 ± 0.8 0.007
Acid exposure time > 4.2% 5 (33.3) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
Reflux activity 62.6 ± 24.5 38.0 ± 15.5 0.002
Reflux activity > 73 7 (46.7) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
Reflux activity
< 40 3 (20.0) 50 (60.2) < 0.001
40-79 7 (46.7) 33 (39.8)
> 80 5 (33.3) 0 (0.0)
Proximal extent of refluxc (n) 34.5 ± 14.8 20.0 ± 11.3 < 0.001
Proximal BId (Ω) 2073.9 ±464.0 2461.7 ± 618.4 0.023
Distal BIe (Ω) 1818.9 ± 841.6 2779.4 ± 784.7 < 0.001
Proximal to distal BI ratiof 1.6 ± 1.4 0.9 ± 0.3 0.104
HREM parameters
Resting LES pressure (mmHg) 22.8 ± 9.2 20.3 ± 13.7 0.499
IRP (mmHg) 11.3 ± 4.7 12.9 ± 6.8 0.376
Resting UES pressure (mmHg) 78.8 ± 39.1 77.2 ± 39.4 0.885
Distal contractile integral (mmHg·sec·cm) 1158.7 ± 952.2 1058.5 ± 1081.5 0.738
TZD length (cm) 5.8 ± 4.3 6.4 ± 4.4 0.635
DB length (cm) 0.5 ± 0.6 0.7 ± 1.1 0.415
TZD + DB length (cm) 6.3 ± 4.5 7.1 ± 4.6 0.520
Ineffective esophageal motility 8 (53.3) 61 (73.5) 0.132

aThere were no patients with severe erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles [LA] classification grade C or D) in this study.

bLaryngopharyngeal reflux was defined as reflux finding score ≥ 7 by laryngoscopic exam.

cProximal extent of reflux is the number of reflux events reaching 15 cm above the low esophageal sphincter (LES).

dProximal baseline impedance (BI) is the mean baseline impedance of 15 cm and 17 cm above LES.

eDistal BI is mean baseline impedance of 3 cm and 5 cm above LES.

fProximal to distal ratio was calculated as proximal BI/distal BI.

GERD, gastroesophageal reflux disease; BMI, body mass index; RE, reflux esophagitis; GerdQ, GERD questionnaire; RSI, reflux symptom index; BI, HREM, high-resolution esophageal manometry; IRP, integrated relaxation pressure; UES, upper esophageal sphincter; TZD, transitional zone defect; DB, distal break; NA, non-applicable.

P-values were calculated using Student’s t test or χ2-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± SD.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2022;28:599~607 https://doi.org/10.5056/jnm21235
© J Neurogastroenterol Motil