Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility : eISSN 2093-0887 / pISSN 2093-0879

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Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of autonomic nerve stimulation and increase in gut permeability. The release of stress peptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGPR), and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) from afferent nerve endings activates mast cells in the mesentery as well as in the mucosal layer. Activated mast cells release chemical mediators such as proteases (tryptase) to modify tight junction proteins (TJPs) and increase intestinal permeability and further activation of immune cells. TLR4, Toll-like receptors 4; PAR-2, protease activated receptor-2; EEC, enteroendocrine cells; LPS, lipopolysaccharide.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2022;28:517~530
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