**Fig. 2. **Colonic and total gastrointestinal (GI) tract motility are delayed throughout the experimental times. Control and infected groups were evaluated in the acute phase (AP; 11 days) and chronic phases (CP; 3, 7, 12, and 15 months post-infection [m.p.i.]) of Trypanosoma cruzi infection (A) Colonic transit time estimated by measuring the time required to release a glass bead. (B) Total transit time, estimated by measuring the time between carmine red orally administration and the time to excretion of red stools. n = 10 mice, except for infected acute phase (IAP) and infected chronic phase 3 m.p.i. (ICP3) groups, n = 16 and n = 15, respectively. For (A) and (B), statistical analysis: two-way ANOVA and Student–Newman–Keuls. Control (○); Infected (●). The symbols (*) represent differences in the relation to the group (control vs infected) and the letters (a, b, c, and d) represent the difference in the time, considering the same group. ^{a}Different from AP (ie, ICP15 was different from IAP). ^{b}Different from CP3 (ie, ICP15 was different from ICP3; CCP15 was different from CCP3). ^{c}Different from CP7 (ie, ICP15 was different from ICP7). ^{d}Different from CP12 (ie, ICP15 was different from ICP12). (C) Colonic transit time in 15 m.p.i. mice in the absence (–) or in the presence (+) of pyridostigmine. (D) The GI total transit time in 15 m.p.i mice in the absence (–) or in the presence (+) of pyridostigmine. n = 10, except for CCP 15 and ICP15 groups, n = 9 and n = 8, respectively. For (C) and (D), statistical analysis: Student’s t tests. P ≤ 0.05. Data presented as mean ± SD. The symbols (*) represent differences in the relation to the group (control vs infected).

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