Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility : eISSN 2093-0887 / pISSN 2093-0879

Table. 2.

Characteristics of Included Studies

PROM Authors Type of constipation Participants
(validation study)
Method of administration Recall period Items and subsets Location of study Original language
Constipation symptoms
BF-Diary Camilleri et al,15 2011 OIC 238 patients with chronic pain Handheld electronic PDA device Past 24 hours and immediately after each defecation event for some items 10 items (3 modules per bowel movement, daily assessment, and treatments used) USA English
BFI Rentz et al,16 2009 OIC 985 patients with chronic pain (202 Phase II; 460 Phase III; 323 Phase III) Clinician administered Last 7 days 3 items Germany English
Ducrotté and Caussé,17 2012 OIC 987 patients with chronic pain (202 Phase II, 463 Phase III, 322 Phase III) Clinician administered Last 7 days 3 items France English
Abramowitz et al,18 2013 OIC 520 patients with pain induced by cancer Clinician administered Last 7 days 3 items France English
Chinese Constipation Questionnaire Chan et al,19 2005 Functional constipation 221 (111 patients with chronic constipation, 110 healthy controls) Pen and paper Past 2 weeks 6 items Hong Kong Chinese
CC Symptom Severity Measures Nelson et al,20 2014 Chronic constipation 1579 with chronic constipation (307 Phase IIb; 1272 Phase III) Telephone-based IVRS Administered daily during trial 7 items (2 subscales: bowel and abdominal symptoms) USA English
CAS McMillan and Williams,21 1989 Iatrogenic constipation 64 (32 at risk for constipation, 32 healthy controls) Pen and paper Past week 8 items USA English
Constipation during pregnancy questionnaire Ponce et al,22 2008 Constipation during pregnancy 207 pregnant women Pen and paper, telephone interview (follow ups) None reported 42 items (5 subscales: demographic, obstetric history, bowel habits and laxative consumption, lifestyle and eating habits, and urinary or fecal incontinence) Spain Not reported
CSI Varma et al,23 2008 Multiple subtypes 294 (191 patients with constipation, 103 healthy controls) Pen and paper Last month (2 items), no recall period (14 items) 16 items (3 subscales: obstructive defecation, colonic inertia, and pain) USA English
CSS Agachan et al,24 1996 Idiopathic constipation 232 patients with constipation Pen and paper None reported 8 items USA English
DIBSS-C Coon et al,25 2020 IBS-C 532 IBS-C patients from multicentre phase IIb study Handheld electronic diary Every BM event (3 items), past 24 hours (3 items) 7 items (2 subcales: bowel movement-related symptoms and abdominal symptoms severity) USA English
FICA Bharucha et al,26 2004 Functional constipation & faecal incontinence 83 women Pen and paper Last 12 months (symptoms-related items) 98 items (8 subscales: general bowel habits, abdominal pain, treatment of constipation, faecal incontinence, urinary symptoms, anorectal disease, surgical history and other, health care utilization, and quality of life) USA English
Fecal Incontinence and Constipation Questionnaire Österberg et al,27 1996 Constipation & faecal incontinence 90 (36 with faecal incontinence, 38 with constipation, 16 healthy controls) Pen and paper None reported 38 items Sweden Not reported
IBS-C Symptom Severity Measures Williams et al,28 2014 IBS-C 1608 patients with IBS-C Telephone-based IVRS Administered daily during trial 9 items (2 subscales: bowel and abdominal symptoms subsets) USA English
KESS Knowles et al,29 2000 Chronic constipation 91 (71 patients with chronic constipation, 20 healthy controls) Researcher administered None reported 11 items UK English
ODS-S Renzi et al,30 2013 ODS 200 (100 patients with ODS, 100 healthy controls) Pen and paper None reported 5 items Italy Not reported
ODS Score Altomare et al,31 2008 ODS 106 (76 patients with ODS, 30 healthy controls) Researcher administered None reported 8 items Italy Not reported
PAC-SYM Frank et al,32 1999 Chronic constipation 216 patients with chronic constipation Pen and paper Past 2 weeks 12 items (3 subscales: stool, rectal, and abdominal symptoms) USA English
Modified PAC-SYM Neri et al,33 2015 Chronic constipation 2203 patients with chronic constipation Pen and paper Past 2 weeks 11 items (2 subscales: stool and abdominal symptoms) Italy English
Rome III Criteria Questionnaire Digesu et al,34 2010 Functional constipation (Rome III) 201 women Pen and paper Last 3 months (9 items), last 6 months (2 items), no recall period (6 items) 17 items UK English
VSAQ Pamuk et al,35 2003 Constipation (unspecified) 369 hospital personnel Pen and paper Last 12 months (symptoms-related items) 5 items Turkey Not reported
Constipation-related quality of life
CTSAT-Q Szeinbach et al,36 2009 Chronic constipation and IBS-C 311 patients with chronic constipation and IBS-C Online questionnaire None reported 12 items (5 subscales: expectations, value, treatment satisfaction, activities, and effectiveness) USA English
Constipation-related Disability Scale Hart et al,37 2012 Chronic constipation 343 (240 patients with constipation, 103 healthy controls) Pen and paper Past week 13 items (2 subscales: leisure/work activities and activities of daily living) USA English
CRQOL Wang et al,38 2009 Chronic constipation 343 (240 patients with constipation, 103 healthy controls) Pen and paper Past 12 months 18 items (4 subscales: social impairment, distress, eating habits, and bathroom attitudes) USA English
E-CIS Abdul Wahab et al,39 2020 Chronic constipation 470 elderly people with chronic constipation Researcher administered None reported 22 items (7 subscales: daily activities, treatment satisfaction, lack of control of bodily function, diet restriction, symptom intensity, anxiety, and preventive actions) Malaysia Malay
PAC-QOL Marquis et al,40 2005 Chronic constipation 223 patients with chronic constipation Pen and paper Past 2 weeks 28 items (4 subscales: worries/concerns, physical discomfort, psychosocial discomfort, and satisfaction) USA, UK, France, Sweden English

PROM, patient-reported outcome measure; BF-Diary, Bowel Function Diary; BFI, Bowel Function Index; CC, chronic constipation; CAS, Constipation Assessment Scale; CSI, Constipation Severity Instrument; CSS, Constipation Scoring System; DIBSS-C, Diary for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms–Constipation; FICA, Fecal Incontinence and Constipation Assessment; IBS-C, constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome; KESS, Knowles-Eccersley-Scott Symptom Questionnaire; ODS-S, Obstructive Defecation Syndrome Score; PAC-SYM, Patient Assessment of Constipation–Symptom; VSAQ, Visual Scale Analog Questionnaire; CTSAT-Q, Chronic Constipation Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire; CRQOL, Constipation-related Quality of Life; E-CIS, Elderly-constipation Impact Scale; PAC-QOL, Patient Assessment of Constipation–Quality of Life; OIC, opioid-induced constipation; PDA, personal digital assistant; IVRS, interactive voice response system; USA, United States of America; UK, United Kingdom.

Method of administration was assumed to be pen and paper unless reported otherwise.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2022;28:376~389 https://doi.org/10.5056/jnm22004
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