Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility : eISSN 2093-0887 / pISSN 2093-0879

Table. 1.

Definition of Levels of Evidence and Strength of Recommendation

Level of evidence
High At least one RCT or SR/meta-analysis with no concern regarding study quality
Moderate At least one RCT or SR/meta-analysis with minor concerns regarding study quality or, at least one cohort/case-control/diagnostic test design study with no concern regarding study quality
Low At least one cohort/case-control/diagnostic test study with minor concerns regarding study quality, or at least one single-arm before-after study or cross-sectional study with no concerns regarding study quality
Very low At least one cohort/case-control/diagnostic test design study with serious concerns regarding study quality, or at least one single-arm before-after study or cross-sectional study with minor/severe concerns regarding study quality
Grade of recommendation
Strong for The benefits of the intervention are more significant than the harms based on a high or moderate level of evidence, such that it can be strongly recommended for clinical practice in most cases
Weak for The benefits and harms of the intervention may vary depending on the clinical situation or patients’ characteristics. Recommended depending on the clinical condition
Weak against The benefits and harms of the intervention may vary depending on the clinical situation or patient characteristics. Intervention is not recommended for clinical practice
Strong against The intervention harms are greater than the benefits based on a high or moderate level of evidence. Intervention is not recommended for clinical practice
No recommendation It is not possible to classify the recommendation due to a lack of evidence or equivocal results. Further evidence is needed

RCT, randomized controlled trial; SR, systematic review.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021;27:453~481 https://doi.org/10.5056/jnm21077
© J Neurogastroenterol Motil