Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility : eISSN 2093-0887 / pISSN 2093-0879

Table. 4.

Possible Causes of Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms

Functional heartburn
Functional dyspepsia
Esophageal motility disorder (eg, achalasia)
Eosinophilic esophagitis
Insufficient acid suppression
Lack of compliance
Improper dosing time
Reduced bioavailability of PPIs
Hypersecretory state (eg, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome)
Weakly acidic or non-acidic reflux
Concomitant functional disorder or psychological comorbidity
Delayed gastric emptying
Reflux hypersensitivity

GERD, gastroesophageal reflux disease; PPIs, proton pump inhibitors.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021;27:453~481
© J Neurogastroenterol Motil