Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility : eISSN 2093-0887 / pISSN 2093-0879

Table. 4.

Possible Causes of Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms

Non-GERD
Functional heartburn
Functional dyspepsia
Esophageal motility disorder (eg, achalasia)
Eosinophilic esophagitis
Insufficient acid suppression
Lack of compliance
Improper dosing time
Reduced bioavailability of PPIs
Hypersecretory state (eg, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome)
Weakly acidic or non-acidic reflux
Concomitant functional disorder or psychological comorbidity
Delayed gastric emptying
Reflux hypersensitivity

GERD, gastroesophageal reflux disease; PPIs, proton pump inhibitors.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021;27:453~481 https://doi.org/10.5056/jnm21077
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