Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility : eISSN 2093-0887 / pISSN 2093-0879

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Fig. 1. The possible inflammatory and immune activation in gastrointestinal mucosa of patients with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome–functional dyspepsia. Inflammatory cells (mast cells, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, and chromaffin cells) are activated and release inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1/6/8, etc) and inflammatory mediators (histamine, leukotriene, platelet activating factor, 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], etc) to participate in the inflammatory response, resulting in the increase of epithelial permeability through the redistribution of tight junction proteins and visceral hypersensitivity through 5-HT and increased excitability of afferent neurons. MLCK, myosin light chain kinase; HPA, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal; ZO-1, zonula occludens-1; DRG, dorsal root ganglion.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021;27:153~164
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