Frequency of reporting of pain or burning above the belly button in the normative survey. The histograms show the frequency of reporting in different time frames for men, women and the combined sample. The vertical dotted line shows the 90th percentile for the combined sample of females and males. MT shows the minimum threshold in males and FT shows the minimum 90th percentile in females. Accordingly, a threshold of only 2–3 days a month would limit misclassification to 10% in females, whereas a threshold of 1 day/ month would limit misclassification to 10% in males. Reproduced with permission from Rome Foundation, Inc.
Components of the endolumenal functional lumen imaging probe (EndoFLIP; EF100) system. (A) There is a catheter connector that connects the syringe which is held by a syringe door and lock to the catheter. There are several catheters but the most common is EF-325 (for description, see B). The recording unit has a touchscreen display with a primary user interface (for description, see C). (B) The catheter (EF-325N) is a 240 cm long plastic catheter with a polyurethrane balloon at its distal end with a maximum diameter of 2.5 cm. Conductive medium fills the balloon during inflation, and within the balloon there are 17 impedance electrodes within a 8 cm segment. Ref is midpoint of the balloon catheter. (C) The display has a friendly touchscreen interface that includes injection volume controls, live images of the balloon inflation and a status window.
The effects of ghrelin in various organs.
Effects of gastrointestinal peptides on food intake via the gut-brain axis. The left side shows the anorexigenic signaling pathway, whereas orexigenic signaling is shown on the right panel. PVN, paraventricular nucleus; LHA, lateral hypothalamic area; MCR 3/4, melanocortin receptors 3 and 4; ARC, arcuate nucleus; POMC, pro-opiomelanocortin; CART, cocaine-and amphetamine-regulatory transcript; NPY, neuropeptide Y; AgRP, agouti-related peptide; NTS, nucleus of the solitary tract; Y1, NPY receptor 1; GIT, gastrointestinal tract; PYY, peptide tyrosine tyrosine; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1; NF-1, nesfatin-1; CCK, cholecystokinin; ↓, decrease; ↑, increase; ?, controversial data (NF-1) or data that resulted from mimetics (GLP-1).
Example of hemodynamic response (A) and time series blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal from a voxel (B). (A) Neurons respond rapidly to internal or external changes and allow the alterations of blood flow and oxygenation in the close area (hemodynamic response) that drives the peak of BOLD signal few seconds after the onset of internal or external changes. BOLD signal slowly returns to baseline level following an undershoot. (B) Within the field of view, each slice consists of a certain number of voxels determined by the size of the measurement matrix. The BOLD signal of each voxel is recorded at consecutive time points and this time trace is further analysed to interfere with functional brain activation.