J Neurogastroenterol Motil  
Correlation between Gastric Emptying and Gastric Adaptive Relaxation influenced by amino acids
Masayuki Uchida1, Orie Kobayashi1*, Chizuru Saito1
Food Science Research Laboratories, Research and Development Division, Meiji Co., Ltd., Odawara, Japan
Correspondence to: Orie Kobayashi
Food Science Research Laboratories, Research and Development Division, Meiji Co, Ltd, 540 Naruda, Odawara, Kanagawa, 250-0862 Japan
Tel: +81-465-37-3664; Fax: +81-465-36-2776, E-mail: orie.kobayashi@meiji.com
Received: September 13, 2016; Revised: January 4, 2017; Accepted: January 15, 2017; Published online: March 23, 2017.
© The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. All rights reserved.

cc This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background/Aims Amino acids have many physiological activities. We report the correlation between gastric emptying and gastric adaptive relaxation using tryptophan and amino acids with a straight alkyl chain, hydroxylated chain, and branched chain. Here we sought to further clarify the correlation between gastric emptying and gastric adaptive relaxation by using other amino acids.
Methods In Sprague-Dawley rats, gastric emptying was evaluated by a breath test using [1-13C] acetic acid. The expired 13CO2 pattern, Tmax, Cmax, and AUC120min values were used as evaluation items. Gastric adaptive relaxation was evaluated in a barostat experiment. Individual amino acids (1 g/kg) were administered orally 30 minutes before each breath test or barostat test.
Results L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine did not influence gastric emptying. All other amino acids, ie, L-proline, L-histidine, L-cysteine, L-methionine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-asparagine, L-arginine, L-glutamine and L-lysine significantly delayed and inhibited gastric emptying. L-Cysteine and L-aspartic acid significantly enhanced and L-methionine and L-glutamine significantly inhibited gastric adaptive relaxation. L-Phenylalanine moved the balloon toward the antrum, suggesting strong contraction of the fundus. Tmax showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.7092), and Cmax and AUC120min each showed negative correlations (r=0.613 and 0.667, respectively) with gastric adaptive relaxation.
Conclusion From the above findings, it was found that a close correlation exists between gastric emptying and adaptive relaxation, suggesting that enhanced gastric adaptive relaxation inhibits gastric emptying.
Keywords: Amino acids, Aspartic acid, Gastric emptying, Phenylalanine, Rat


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