Alisha Kabadi, Mohammed Saadi, Ron Schey, and Henry P Parkman" /> Alisha Kabadi, Mohammed Saadi, Ron Schey, and Henry P Parkman. J Neurogastroenterol Motil 1999;0:. https://doi.org/10.5056/jnm16132">
J Neurogastroenterol Motil  
Taste and Smell Disturbances in Patients with Gastroparesis and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Alisha Kabadi, Mohammed Saadi, Ron Schey, and Henry P Parkman*
Gastroenterology Section, Department of Medicine; Temple University School of Medicine; Philadelphia, PA, USA
Correspondence to: Henry P Parkman, MD
Gastroenterology Section; Parkinson Pavilion, 8th floor, Temple University School of Medicine; 3401 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
Tel: +1-215-707-7579, Fax: +1-215-707-2684, E-mail: henry.parkman@temple.edu
Received: August 17, 2016; Revised: November 2, 2016; Accepted: December 15, 2016; Published online: February 1, 2017.
© The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. All rights reserved.

cc This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background/Aims
Patients with gastroparesis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) often report decreased enjoyment when eating. Some patients remark that food does not smell or taste the same. To determine if taste and/or smell disturbances are present in patients with gastroparesis and/or GERD and relate these to gastrointestinal symptom severity.
Methods
Patients with gastroparesis and/or GERD completed questionnaires evaluating taste and smell (Taste and Smell Survey [TSS]), Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index (PAGI-SYM), and demographics. TSS questioned the nature of taste/smell changes and the impact on quality of life. PAGI-SYM was used to calculate Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) and heartburn and regurgitation (HB/RG) score.
Results
Seventy-six subjects were enrolled: healthy controls (n = 13), gastroparesis alone (n = 30), GERD alone (n = 10), and both gastroparesis and GERD (n = 23). Taste and smell disturbances were higher in patients with gastroparesis, GERD and both gastroparesis and GERD compared to healthy controls. Taste and smell abnormalities were significantly correlated (r = 0.530, P < 0.001). Taste score was strongly correlated with HB/RG score (r = 0.637, P < 0.001) and with GCSI (r = 0.536, P < 0.001). Smell score was also strongly correlated to HB/RG score (r = 0.513, P < 0.001), and GCSI (r = 0.495, P < 0.001).
Conclusions
Taste and smell abnormalities are prominent in gastroparesis and GERD patients. Abnormalities in taste and smell are significantly correlated with both gastroparesis and GERD symptom severity. Awareness of this high prevalence of taste and smell dysfunction among patients with gastroparesis and GERD may help to better understand the food intolerances these patients often have.
Keywords: Gastroesophageal reflux; Gastroparesis; Smell; Taste


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