J Neurogastroenterol Motil  
Foods Inducing Typical Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms in Korea
Jung Wan Choe, Moon Kyung Joo, Hyo Jung Kim, Beom Jae Lee, Ji Hoon Kim, Jong Eun Yeon, Jong-Jae Park, Jae Seon Kim, Kwan Soo Byun, and Young-Tae Bak*
Department of Gastroenterology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Young-Tae Bak, MD
Korea University Guro Hospital, 148 Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul 08308, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2626-1778, Fax: +82-504-366-6381, E-mail: drbakyt@korea.ac.kr
Received: July 28, 2016; Revised: October 17, 2016; Accepted: November 13, 2016; Published online: January 31, 2017.
© The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. All rights reserved.

cc This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background/Aims
Several specific foods are known to precipitate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and GERD patients are usually advised to avoid such foods. However, foods consumed daily are quite variable according to regions, cultures, etc. This study was done to elucidate the food items which induce typical GERD symptoms in Korean patients.
Methods
One hundred and twenty-six Korean patients with weekly typical GERD symptoms were asked to mark all food items that induced typical GERD symptoms from a list containing 152 typical foods consumed daily in Korea. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy followed by 24-hr ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring. The definition of “GERD” was if either of the 2 studies revealed evidence of GERD, and “possible GERD” if both studies were negative.
Results
One hundred and twenty-six cases (51 GERD and 75 possible GERD) were enrolled. In 19 (37.3%) of 51 GERD cases and in 17 (22.7%) of 75 possible GERD cases, foods inducing typical GERD symptoms were identified. In the GERD group (n = 19), frequent symptom-inducers were hot spicy stew, rice cakes, ramen noodles, fried foods, and topokki. In the possible GERD group (n = 17), frequent symptom-inducers were hot spicy stew, fried foods, doughnuts, breads, ramen noodles, coffee, pizza, topokki, rice cakes, champon noodles, and hotdogs.
Conclusions
In one third of GERD patients, foods inducing typical symptoms were identified. Hot spicy stew, rice cake, ramen noodles, fried food, and topokki were the foods frequently inducing typical symptoms in Korea. The list of foods frequently inducing typical GERD symptoms needs to be modified based on their own local experiences.
Keywords: Food, Gastroesophageal reflux, Korea, Symptom assessment


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