J Neurogastroenterol Motil  
Control of Food Intake by Gastrointestinal Peptides: Mechanisms of Action and Possible Modulation in the Treatment of Obesity
Philip Prinz and Andreas Stengel*
Charité Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Department for Psychosomatic Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Correspondence to: Andreas Stengel, MD, PhD
Department for Psychosomatic Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin, Germany
Tel: +49-30-450-553-002, E-mail: andreas.stengel@charite.de
Received: November 8, 2016; Accepted: December 6, 2016; Published online: January 17, 2017.
© The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. All rights reserved.

cc This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
This review focuses on the control of appetite by food intake-regulatory peptides secreted from the gastrointestinal tract, namely cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, ghrelin, and the recently discovered nesfatin-1 via the gut-brain axis. Additionally, we describe the impact of external factors such as intake of different nutrients or stress on the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides. Finally, we highlight possible conservative−physical activity and pharmacotherapy−treatment strategies for obesity as well as surgical techniques such as deep brain stimulation and bariatric surgery also altering these peptidergic pathways.
Keywords: Bariatric surgery; Brain-gut axis; Deep brain stimulation; Psychosomatic; Obesity


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